Posted by: faithful | July 13, 2007

the four food groups and health maintenance

Insulin control and the four food groups:
protein, healthy fats, complex carbs, and fiber

One thing we know for certain about insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome is that they are intimately related to nutrition. At Women to Women, we regard insulin resistance as the perfect opportunity to make changes in your diet that can keep blood glucose stable. But having diabetes makes it mandatory to do all the things we encourage women to do anyway, especially eating balanced meals.

We are all well-served when we eat from the four food groups, by choosing fresh colorful vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and rich sources of protein and healthy fats (as well as avoiding heavily processed foods such as high-fructose corn syrup and trans fats). Balance is as essential in diabetes as it is in overall health — it’s just that it’s no longer an option!

To underscore the importance of balance in controlling blood glucose, we’ve compiled an overview of the four food groups — protein, fat, complex carbohydrates, and fiber — and encourage you to include them in all your meals and snacks daily.

Keep in mind as you read below that in terms of energy, the two hormones that are most influential when it comes to what we store in our bodies and what we use are insulin and glucagon. In broad terms, you can think of insulin as the “storer” of nutrients and glucagon as the “mobilizer” of nutrients. Insulin opens cell doors to take glucose out of the blood stream and shuttle it into your cells, while glucagon stimulates the release of glucose into the blood stream.


Protein is essential for life. We use it to build and repair our bodies (including our bones, cells, muscles, enzymes, hair, nails, hormones, and neurotransmitters). We use it to help us burn fat and help fight off infection and inflammation. When we eat protein the pancreas releases glucagon to help mobilize carbohydrates for needed building materials and energy.

The average woman needs to consume about 60–70 grams of protein a day — but it isn’t really necessary for you to count grams of protein unless you think you’re not getting enough. Good sources of animal protein include eggs, fish, poultry, lean meats and cheese. Protein sources are also found abundantly in the plant world in seeds, nuts, legumes, and soy foods, such as tofu, tempeh, and soy milk (for more information, see our article on the health benefits of soy). Another way to boost protein intake is by combining wholegrains with any of the above-listed protein sources in your meals and snacks.


Like protein, fat is essential for life. It is an integral part of every cell membrane in our bodies and comprises about a third of our brains. So despite any recent fads in low-fat dieting, it is clear that eating fat is fundamental to health and well-being! Among its many roles, fat is crucial to maintaining adequate hormonal balance, stabilizing blood sugar, increasing immunity, supplying energy, and controlling hunger.

How does fat regulate hunger? When we eat fat, our intestinal and stomach walls secrete cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide hormone that helps with the digestion of fat and protein. It also stimulates the vagus nerve with the message to “stop eating” and triggers the sensation of fullness. Whenever you feel hungry between meals you can test this mechanism by eating a small handful of nuts, such as almonds or walnuts, to trigger the release of CCK. Within 20 minutes you should note the hunger pangs abate!

Fat also slows down the processing of food in your digestive tract, which means that by including it in your meals and snacks you lower the overall glycemic load. This makes for steadier blood sugar levels over time and nice long-lasting satisfaction after eating.

Fat is good for you, but it is important to eat the right kinds of fats — natural fats. There are three kinds of natural fats: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. All three of these fats are okay to eat because they are natural and your body can digest them, but it’s the polyunsaturates that rank as stars in maintaining health.

Damaged fats, including oxidized or rancid fats, trans-fatty acids and hydrogenated fats, are what you should be careful to avoid. These are fats whose chemical structures have been altered in such a way that your body cannot metabolize them. These fats build up as cellular debris and eventually damage cells.

In a study published in 2001 of nearly 85,000 women followed over 14 years, it was found that trans-fatty acids increase and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. The authors concluded that substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids in the diet is likely to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially. Although no direct causal link between the effects of trans fatty acids and diabetes was identified, in the presence of underlying insulin resistance, researchers felt trans fats increase the probability of developing clinical disease.

As an aside,we’d like to think that the publication of this study in 2001 is helping to break the pattern the food industry has had of loading commercially produced foods with damaging trans fats. Although we’ve known since the 1970’s that trans fats are bad for us, they remain common in prepackaged and processed foods such as brand name peanut butters, margarines, non-dairy creamers, imitation mayonnaise, deep fried foods, and fast foods.

It’s interesting that it has taken over 30 years for fast-food chains such as McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken to agree to eliminate them from their menus. Even so, the food industry is permitted to label foods with “zero trans fats” if they contain less than a gram per serving.  So be sure to check the labels for serving size — if you see they’re really small, they’re probably hiding something. The December 2006 decision by the people of New York City to ban these artery-clogging fats altogether from their streets shows us that given adequate information, people are prepared to take their health into their own hands. One more good reason to love NYC!

(For more information, see our article on the truth about fat and cholesterol.)


Carbohydrates are recognized by our bodies as sugar that gives us immediate energy. Carbohydrates stimulate the release of insulin, and if they’re not used right away as fuel, they’ll be stored as fat in your body. So it is important to think about your activity level when consuming carbs.

Unlike fat and protein, carbohydrates do not trigger a signal to your brain that you are full until after you’ve already overeaten. But don’t let this information tempt you to avoid carbs altogether. Why not? Because eating a diet with zero carbohydrates causes insulin levels to drop even further, which not only starves the cells of energy (the very situation diabetics are trying to avoid), but upsets the insulin–glucagon balance. This can lead to depression, fatigue, insomnia, and bone loss. Additionally, our brains need glucose from carbohydrates to function properly.

To keep your insulin–glucagonratio balanced, it is important to consume carbohydrates with a low glycemic index (GI). This means eating carbs found in whole grains, fruit and vegetables — known as complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates break down more slowly in the digestive tract, resulting in a less dramatic surge in blood sugar levels and more efficient metabolism.

Fiber/non-starchy veggies:

Non-starchy vegetables contain fiber and loads of important vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients for your body. These micronutrients hold information that speaks to your cells and genes to keep your systems in balance. Because of their low glycemic index, it isn’t necessary to keep track of the carbohydrates you are consuming while eating non-starchy vegetables. There is an endless variety, color, and texture to choose from this group: eat as many as you like — the more the better!

By planning to include each of the above food groups in your meals and snacks, you can regulate your blood sugar levels better and supply your body with the abundant raw materials it needs to constantly rebuild healthy cells, tissues, and organs.

Click here to return to our article on preventing type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Original Publication Date: 04/24/2007
Last Modified: 4/26/2007
Principal Author: Amy Amoroso


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: